100天，逾百万。自1月20日确诊首例新冠病例至今的100多天时间里，美国确诊病例数从1例增至100万例以上，成为全球新冠确诊和死亡病例最多的国家。美国国内疫情形势严峻，但一些美国政客却不把精力用在抗疫上，而是忙着造谣抹黑、到处“甩锅”。然而这不仅无法转嫁责任，反而进一步暴露出美国疫情防控中的重重疑点，引发了外界的种种质疑。关于疫情的这10个问号，美国政府有责任有义务回答清楚，给全世界一个交代。Ten questions the US needs to offer clear answers to the world1.禽流感病毒改造去年突然重启，之后无声无息，为什么？1.Regarding the restarted avian influenza virus modification experiment last year, why does the US release no more updates?去年2月，据美国《科学》杂志网站披露，美国政府机构已“悄悄”批准曾引发巨大争议的禽流感病毒改造实验，这类被认为“危险”的实验在被禁多年后将很快重启。相关实验可将H5N1禽流感病毒改造得易于在哺乳动物间传播，被认为可能带来人际传播风险。美国为何在相关实验被暂停4年多后重启这类危险实验？又为何不见披露进展？The Science reported in February 2019 that US authorities had quietly approved the avian influenza virus modification experiment. The research, aiming to transform the H5N1 virus to be more capable of infecting mammals, was controversial and considered extremely dangerous. Some experts believe that the modification may increase the risk of human-to-human transmission of the virus.The question is why the US government decided to unfreeze the experiment 4 years after it was halted, and why there are no more updates regarding the experiment.2.The United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) was previously closed.What is the truth behind ?日前，据“全球生物防御”（globalbiodefence）网站报道，位于马里兰州德特里克堡的美国陆军传染病医学研究所（USAMRIID）已经全面恢复运行。去年7月，美国疾病控制与预防中心（CDC）正式向位于马里兰州德特里克堡的美国陆军传染病医学研究所（USAMRIID）发出“停产令”，要求其停止进行“特定生物制剂与毒素”研究。今年3月，白宫请愿网站出现一道特殊的请愿帖，要求美国政府公布去年7月“关闭”德特里克堡生物实验室的真正原因。USAMRIID神秘“关闭”和迅速重启引人关注。针对白宫请愿网站请愿帖上的要求，美国作何回应？The Global Biodefence reported in April that the USAMRIID, US Army's primary institution and facility for biological research headquartered in Fort Detrick, Maryland, has resumed full operation. The institution was once ordered to halt the study of biological select agents and toxins (BSATs) last July. In March, there was a petition on the White House website demanding the clarification of the shutdown of USAMRIID. Given that these issues have become a primary public concern, what is the US government's response?3.去年传染病演习情景今年真实上演，真的只是巧合？3.The US Department of Health and Human Services ran a scenario last year that was similar to the COVID-19 outbreak. Is this just a coincidence?今年3月《纽约时报》披露的一份美国官方秘密文件显示，2019年1月至8月16日举行，美国卫生与公共服务部（HHS）发起组织了一场代号为“赤色传染”（Crimson Contagion）的推演，演习以中国最早出现病毒为模拟情景。2019年10月，美国多个机构又组织了一次代号为“Event 201”的全球流行病演习。演练中的模型假设一种名为CAPS的冠状病毒，比SARS致命，又如感冒轻易传播，却未开发出疫苗，能迅速传播促成全球大流行。美国去年进行的传染病演习的设定与现实的吻合度如此之高是否只是巧合？既然有演练在前，新冠疫情发生后美国为何没有给予足够的关注和重视、宣称“尚在掌握之中”？In March, the New York Times quoted a draft report obtained from the US government saying that from January to August 2019, the US Department of Health and Human Services ran a scenario called "Crimson Contagion" that simulated the fictional outbreak involving a group of tourists visiting China. They then became infected and flew to various countries, including the US.Last October, a high-level pandemic exercise named Event 201 was hosted by a couple of US organizations. The drill simulated a scenario that a fictional virus called CAPS, which causes more severe symptoms than SARS and transmits via the respiratory route like the common flu, had caused a pandemic. Like COVID-19, there is no vaccine for CAPS.Given the fact that the simulated virus is so much like COVID-19, is this just a coincidence? Another question is, why did it not take enough preventive measures at the early stages of the coronavirus outbreak since the US has predicted a similar pandemic?4.US intelligence officials warned of coronavirus crisis as early as last November. Why the warning was ignored?今年4月，据美国广播公司（ABC）报道，有内部消息称，早在2019年11月下旬，美国情报官员就曾多次向国防情报局、五角大楼和白宫警告，一场传染病正在席卷中国武汉地区。美国国家医学情报中心（NCMI）去年11月出具了一份详细阐述病毒大流行情况的报告，也就是后来被确认的新型冠状病毒肺炎“COVID-19”。有分析人士认为武汉疫情爆发可能会演变成一场灾难性事件。据美国《华盛顿邮报》网站报道称在年初的2个多月时间里，特朗普获得了美国情报机构发出的关于新冠病毒的密集警告。美国政府为何一直拖到3月13日才宣布进入“国家紧急状态”？In April, according to the American Broadcasting Corporation (ABC), it was said that, as early as late November 2019, US intelligence officials had warned the Defense Intelligence Agency, the Pentagon, and the White House that an infectious disease was sweeping through Wuhan, China.Last November, the US National Center for Medical Intelligence (NCMI) issued a report detailing the coronavirus pandemic, which was later identified as "COVID-19". Some analysts believed that the outbreak in Wuhan might have evolved into a catastrophic event. According to the Washington Post, in more than two months from January to February, Trump had received intensive warnings from the US intelligence agencies about the coronavirus. Why did the US government not declare a "National Emergency" until March 13?5.有多少流感患者感染的其实是新冠肺炎，能不能说清楚？5.Among the reported influenza deaths in the US, can the US clarify how many cases are actually infected with COVID-19?今年2月21日，日本朝日电视台报道的“美国1.4万名因流感致死的人中部分可能死于新冠肺炎”掀起热议。美疾控中心2月底发布的报告显示，今冬流感季美国估计已有至少3200万流感。3月11日在美国众议院，美国疾控中心主任罗伯特·雷德菲尔德（Robert Redfield）亲口承认，在美国，确实有一些“流感”死者实际感染的可能是新冠肺炎。美国流感感染者中，到底有多少新冠病例？美国有没有借流感来掩盖新冠肺炎的情况？美国何时才能公开美国流感病毒样本及基因序列信息，或者允许世卫组织或联合国派遣专家采样分析？Japanese Asahi Television reported on February 21 that some of the 14,000 people reportedly killed by influenza in the US might have died from coronavirus, which became a hot topic soon after.The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released a report at the end of February, showing that there have been at least 32 million flu illnesses in the US that winter.On March 11, at the House of Representatives, Robert Redfield, the director of the US CDC, admitted that some in the US who were previously thought to have been killed from the flu may have been infected with coronavirus.Among the reported influenza deaths in the US, how many cases were infected with COVID-19? Did the US government cover up the spread of coronavirus with the flu? When will the US government make public the samples of the US influenza virus and its genetic sequence, or allow experts from the WHO or the United Nations to sample and analyze?6.新冠病毒到底什么时候在美国出现？社区传播是否早已开始？6.When did the novel coronavirus first appear in the US? Did community transmission of the coronavirus start sooner than it was reported?今年4月下旬，美国加利福尼亚州圣克拉拉县政府公共卫生部门公布的最新检测报告显示，早在2月6日当地就有人死于新冠肺炎，这比美国此前公布的首例新冠死亡病例出现时间提前了20多天。据《洛杉矶时报》报道，圣克拉拉县的卫生官员萨拉·科迪表示，这些新发现的死亡病例说明，当时“已经有相当程度的社区传播”。圣克拉拉县行政长官杰弗里·史密斯表示，这表明新冠病毒早在1月、甚至更早就已经开始在加州传播。加州州长纽瑟姆已宣布将对去年12月以来疑似新冠死亡病例进行尸检。新冠病毒到底什么时候在美国出现？美国新冠疫情在社区的传播是否早已开始？A report released in late April by local health authorities suggests that a 57-year-old woman from Santa Clara County of California died from COVID-19 on February 6, some 20 days earlier than the date the US announced its first death caused by the virus.The Los Angeles Times quoted Santa Clara County health officer Sara Cody in a piece saying, "we presume that each of them represents community transmission and that there was some significant level of virus circulating in our community in early February."County Executive Officer Jeffrey V. Smith said this is evidence that the coronavirus was circulating in California as early as January or even earlier.California Gov. Gavin Newsom has ordered all counties in the state to review autopsies of suspected coronavirus deaths dating back to December.When did the novel coronavirus first appear in the US? Did community transmission of the coronavirus start sooner than it was reported?7.全球首个启动新冠疫苗人体试验，这么快是怎么拿到毒株的？7.How did the US get the virus strains so soon to start the first human testing of a vaccine against COVID-19?据《华尔街日报》报道，美国国立卫生研究院(National Institutes of Health)3月16日称，生物科技公司Moderna Inc. (MRNA)针对新型冠状病毒的试验性疫苗已开始首次人体测试。对于全球首次针对新型冠状病毒的疫苗人体试验在美国启动一事，专家表示，美国这一针实在太快了，除非很早就开始进行试验，更早的拿到了病毒株。美国疫苗人体试验为何进行得如此之快？美国是什么时候通过什么方式获得的毒株？The Wall Street Journal on March 16 reported that the first human testing of Moderna Inc.'s experimental vaccine against the COVID-19 had already begun. Experts immediately raised questions about the speed of the vaccine development, saying that it would not be possible unless the US had obtained the virus strains from very early on. So how did the US start the first human testing of the vaccine so soon? When and how did they get the virus strains?8.Why did the US government keep downplaying the pandemic while its officials privately dumped stocks?据《华盛顿邮报》报道，大约在新冠肺炎疫情引发美股暴跌之前一周，美国国会参议院情报委员会主席理查德·伯尔密集出售了自己和夫人持有的33只股票，估价在62.8万美元到172万美元之间。为什么2月中旬美国政府对本国新冠肺炎疫情轻描淡写，而参议院情报委员会的多位官员却在那时抛售价值上百万的股票？难道政客们竟然一边利用内幕交易售卖股票，一边对公众隐瞒疫情？According to the Washington Post, US Senate Intelligence Committee Chairman Richard Burr and his wife sold up to 1.7 million in 33 different stocks just one week before the market plunged. Why did these officials at the Committee act so quickly while the government was continually understating the pandemic?Why is the vital information kept confidential to the public while the government officials were taking advantage to practice insider-trading?9.不许美国专家学者随意公开谈论新冠病毒，是想干什么？9.Why are US experts not allowed to discuss COVID-19 in public?据美国《纽约时报》报道，在由副总统迈克·彭斯领导美国防疫工作之后，白宫于当地时间2月27日开始，加强了对新冠病毒信息“发声”的控制。包括美国国立卫生研究院（NIH）过敏和传染病研究所(NIAID)主任、美国疾控中心（CDC）顶级传染病专家安东尼·福西（Anthony S. Fauci）在内的众多科学家和政府卫生官员被要求：只有与美国副总统办公室协调商议后，才能发声明或公开露面谈论新冠病毒的相关话题。为什么号称言论自由的美国不允许专家学者自由公开讨论新冠病毒？是想隐瞒什么还是在害怕什么？The New York Times reported that the White House began tightening controls for all coronavirus messaging from health officials on February 27 after Vice President Mike Pence led the nation's epidemic prevention and control efforts.Several scientists and government health officials, including the nation's leading infectious disease expert Anthony S. Fauci, have been asked to make statements or make public appearances about the COVID-19 only after consultation with the US vice president's office.Why does the United States, which claims free speech, not allow experts and scholars to discuss the novel coronavirus in public? Does the US want to hide something or fear of something?10.海外生物实验室到底在做什么研究，为什么从不向外界透露？10.What research is being done in the US overseas biological laboratories? Why does the US keep tight-lipped about it?据俄罗斯卫星通讯社日前报道，俄罗斯国家杜马国际事务委员会副主席波克隆斯卡娅提议核查世界各地美国生物实验室的合法性。前不久，俄罗斯外交部发言人就美国在前苏联国家建立生物实验室表达关切。俄罗斯内政、外交和国防领域专家格里高利·特罗菲姆丘克表示，美国这些生物实验室所从事的工作从不向外界透露，并且这些实验室引发了大量的问题，在实验室所在地就曾爆发过大范围的麻疹等危险的传染类疾病。美国建立的这些生物实验室到底在进行什么研究？美国为何对这些生物实验室的功能、用途、安全系数等三缄其口？Natalia Poklonskaya, deputy chairman of the State Duma Committee on Foreign Affairs, has proposed verifying the legitimacy of US biological laboratories around the world, according to Sputnik news agency.Not long ago, a spokesman for the Russian Foreign Ministry expressed concern about the establishment of a biological laboratory in countries from the former Soviet Union.Grigory Trofimchuk, a Russian expert in the field of internal affairs, foreign affairs, and national defense, said the work of these biological laboratories was never disclosed to the outside world, and that they had caused several problems, with widespread outbreaks of dangerous infectious diseases such as measles at the laboratory site.What research is being done in these biological laboratories? Why does the US keep tight-lipped about the function, use, the safety of these biological laboratories?
来源 | 人民日报客户端
编辑 | 姚昱旸